Unless you bought the phone in a duty free shop, probably not, and even then you may have to pay duties when you return. TripAdvisor sums this up nicely:
Sales taxes are imposed on merchandise that you take with you from the
shop. Unlike VAT schemes, there is no "export" price or system for a
refund of the tax if you take the merchandise with you outside of the
U.S. However, sales taxes will not be imposed on merchandise that you
have shipped back to your home in another country, or in some cases,
back to your home or hotel in another U.S. state.
In the United States, sales taxes are imposed at the state, county, and/or city level, so obtaining a refund could entail dealing with quite a few different jurisdictions. Unless you purchased the phone in a jurisdiction that doesn't levy sales tax (some states don't), you're required to pay it.
There are some states that offer international visitors an exemption from sales taxes at certain registered merchants, e.g. Texas and Louisiana, but unless you showed the merchant your documentation at the time of purchase and obtained a refund voucher then, I don't think you can claim a refund.