Once a company starts trading publicly, how do they turn shares into cash that they can then use to grow their business?
From what I've read so far, it seems that pre-IPO an investment bank essentially buys the companies public shares, and that bank then sells them on the open market. Is the investment bank buying 100% of the newly issued public shares? And then depositing the cash equivalent into the companies bank account? Additionally, as the stock price rises and falls over the lifetime of the company how does that actually impact the companies bank balance?
It would seem as if there are far too many fluctuations on a minute-to-minute basis to be making adjustments to a bank balance sheet. Is the entire system just "on paper" in the end? If so how can a company leverage their "on paper" valuation to actually pay vendors, employees, etc.?