# How is it possible for a company that has never made money to have positive equity?

Consider the technology company Snap Inc (NYSE: SNAP). When you look at its balance sheet we see that `Ret. Earn.(Accum. Deficit)` is `(7,778) Million`.

Yet it has a positive shareholder equity value. `Total Equity` is `2,199 Million`. As a student who is still new to the world of financial statements. How exactly is this possible?

• Well, it owns Snapchat. How many million dollars do you think someone would pay to buy Snapchat? Commented Nov 2, 2020 at 11:52
• Note that your house, say, has a very high value, but no income at all. It's totally normal that something has high value / no income. Commented Nov 2, 2020 at 16:08
• If I have an axe and I chop down trees and make desirable chairs but never sell a chair then my equity accounts for the value of my axe (\$50-\$100) and chairs (no. of chairs * market rate for a chair of the given build quality) even though I've never sold either one. Commented Nov 2, 2020 at 18:39
• @Fattie I understand that part, but how is equity INCREASING? Commented Nov 5, 2020 at 1:50
• @AlanSTACK it's completely normal that your house could be sold for \$1m today, but five years from now it might be worth \$2m. The equity has doubled! Commented Nov 5, 2020 at 2:03

While your assessment is fundamentally correct, you are missing one simple thing: The question is not whether it ever had an income, but what the value is of the assets held by the company.

Example 1: Every year you spend \$10k more than you earn. Are you bankrupt? Well, you own a couple of hectare of land that you can sell for millions. Have fun spending your money!

Example 2: I give you an account with \$100k. You take out \$1000 per year for 5 years. You still have positive equity despite never making any money.

In case of Snap Inc - same basic accounting principle. Equity is `assets - liabilities`. So, Snap Inc still has equity by simply having more assets than liabilities. One way is by doing a large IPO and taking in a TON of investor money that still is not used up.

Let's have a look at the stock chart. This is a nice income statement, but it is NOT A BALANCE SHEET. If you look at the balance sheet you see it has a TON of equity, TON of invested capital, heck, and still a ton of working capital. Here are the hectares of land (i.e. the asset worth a LOT) and the accumulated debt is not large enough to completely offset those.

• I understand your point, but how is equity INCREASING? Even after IPO, how exactly does the company have INCREASING equity despite running ever-larger annual deficits? Commented Nov 5, 2020 at 1:51
• Alan, they own a lot of stock in other companies, that could be going up tremendously. Commented Nov 5, 2020 at 2:06
• Actually given how the stock market was the last months, it DID go up. Commented Nov 5, 2020 at 7:43
• @AlanSTACK irrational exuberance. Commented Dec 16, 2022 at 1:02