How do I pay my taxes if I’m working from inside the US and being paid by a foreign company?
I’m technical writing by the hour. I under bid my rate since I didn't consider how much tax I’d have to pay.
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If the foreign company is not withholding taxes and does not file a 1099 form, then you just need to track the amount you make and report it.
Each quarter, you will have to file estimated taxes so that you don't end up owing more than a $1000 in tax. If you owe more than that, then you may be subject to penalties and interest.
Be careful, the deadlines for paying estimated tax are April, June, September, and January. They are the fifteenth of the month unless that falls on a weekend or holiday, in which case it is the next business day. Publication 505.
Remember that you are responsible for income taxes, payroll taxes (Social Security and Medicare), and the employer's share of those payroll taxes. Be especially sure that you are caught up in the January payment such that you've paid almost all of the taxes for the year. If you overpay, you lose a bit of interest but get the money back as a tax refund when you file. But if you underpay by too much, you owe not just the taxes but potentially penalties and interest.
More info at Self Employment Taxes. Note that the company being foreign or domestic doesn't matter to you in terms of what you owe. It may make some difference to the paperwork that the company files.