This is a feature that a broker can offer, it's broker sprecific.
I just signed into my (broker) account and see a 'Pay Bills' tab that allows me to enter the details for any bill I wish to pay, pretty similar to how I pay from my regular Bank Checking.
This is not your problem.
More to the point you won't be able to find out details. It's up to the person who sent you the money to find out what happened to it. All you know is that you haven't received it in your account (because it was closed).
No bank is going to give you details about a money transfer sent by someone else, so you can't help the person ...
Is it a technical limitation?
Sort of. I'm guessing that your brokerage requires a routing number and account number for electronic transfers (in or out) and so does your credit card. Since neither your brokerage account nor your credit card account have routing/account numbers (these are typically just for bank checking/savings accounts) there's not a ...