So, if I should not fill out income/tax/payments etc. on page 1, where
do I enter the amount $1410 that should be refunded?
I'm not sure, but one possibility would be that it is not entered anywhere, and the IRS will look at how much you paid before, and calculate a refund based on that.
Also, why should I file 8843?
International students are "exempt ...
For 3 years after the filing date, there's no such thing as "your negligence". You are allowed to amend your taxes using Form 1040X for any reason, or no reason at all. So if you see a deduction you missed, by all means! File a 1040X and claim it.
After 3 years, you can amend it, but they won't pay you any more refunds.
You should write a completely ...
There is no problem putting a foreign address on a 1040, my wife has been doing it for 15 years.
I don't recall that she's been asked to file the forms you mention, though I imagine it's best to be consistent.
No, that's not typical.
The IRS refunds site suggests you call if:
It has been 21 days or more since you e-filed
It has been 6 weeks or more since you mailed your return
"Where's My Refund" tells you to contact the IRS
It might take longer for prior year returns but I don't see any alternate timelines for prior year returns, in no case would I ...