Shareholder equity = Book value (tangible+intangible)
Shareholder's equity is the remaining assets available to investors once all liabilities have been paid.
It's calculated as:
Book Value = Shareholder Equity = Total Assets – Total Liabilities
BVPS = (Total Assets – Total Liabilities)/(shr outstanding)
Book value (tangible)
Book value (tangible)...
wouldn't it be more logical to divide it by outstanding common shares instead of total outstanding shares?
Yes, with possibly some adjustments, and that's what the formula uses for "total shares outstanding". The article even specifies this:
The common share count used in the denominator is typically an average number of diluted common shares for ...
For personal finance (even though this question is tagged for stocks):
How about the fundamental accounting equation?
Assets = Liabilities + Equity
Equity = Assets - Liabilities
In a personal finance context, "equity" is better known as "net worth"
The concept of net present value
The actual equation is a little ...
For personal finance, the Micawber Principle, from Charles Dickens' David Copperfield:
Annual income twenty pounds, annual expenditure nineteen, nineteen and
six, result happiness. Annual income twenty pounds, annual
expenditure twenty pounds ought and six, result misery.