My understanding is that individuals with income < FPL don't qualify for ACA subsidies. I have made around 10-15k this year from a previous job, but currently don't have a job (by choice, but I intend to start a job in a few months that should pay 100k/yr at the minimum). My taxable investments yield around 5-8k in ordinary dividends and 5k in qualified dividends annually. I also have tens of thousands of dollars in unrealized long-term capital gains that I could potentially liquidate. Based on a quick query, the federal poverty level (FPL) is $12,140. I file taxes as a single individual.
My confusion concerns what exactly I can count as income to qualify for the subsidy, what time frame resolution they look at (do I have to reach the FPL every month?), and how 'random income' is treated.