No, you can't use this year's deductions to offset last year's taxes. However, there are a few things you can do to take advantage of a low income year.
For example, if you have a traditional IRA, you could convert some of those funds to a Roth IRA. Normally, when you do that you need to pay income tax on that money. However, since you have no income this year, you could convert a certain amount of money that would be offset by your deductions and exemptions and end up paying no tax on the conversion.
Now would also be a good time to realize some capital gains from your investments, as you would be paying a much lower rate than you probably were last year.
Since you are in a low tax bracket, anything that you do that you need to pay tax on will be cheaper this year than it was last year.