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I deposited a check into my Fidelity cash management account. It took a few days for the check deposit to be processed. After that, I had to wait a few more days before being able to withdraw the corresponding money (or even a subset of it) from the account. Why is there some latency between the time a check deposit was processed and when one can withdraw the money on Fidelity cash management accounts?

I believe I can withdraw the money as soon as a check deposit is processed with my checking account at the Bank of America. Is that delay specific to cash management accounts? Or specific to some banks such as Fidelity?

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Every bank and credit union in the US has a Deposit Agreement and Disclosures document, Bank of America is no different.

Our general policy is to make funds from your cash and check deposits available to you no later than the first business day after the day of your deposit. However, in some cases we place a hold on funds that you deposit by check. A hold results in a delay in the availability of these funds.

that sounds great but ...

For determining the availability of your deposits, every day is a business day, except Saturdays, Sundays, and federal holidays. If you make a deposit on a business day that we are open at one of our financial centers before 2:00 p.m. local time, or at one of our ATMs before 5:00 p.m. local time in the state where we maintain your account, we consider that day to be the day of your deposit. However, if you make a deposit after such times, or on a day when we are not open or that is not a business day, we consider that the deposit was made on the next business day we are open. Some locations have different cutoff times.

so if you deposit a check on Friday afternoon, the funds are generally available on Tuesday.

but not always...

In some cases, we will not make all of the funds that you deposit by check available to you by the first business day after the day of your deposit. Depending on the type of check that you deposit, funds may not be available until the second business day after the day of your deposit. The first $200 of your deposits, however, may be available no later than the first business day after the day of your deposit. If we are not going to make all of the funds from your deposit available by the first business day after the day of your deposit, we generally notify you at the time you make your deposit. We also tell you when the funds will be available.

Ok what happens when the funds are available...

In many cases, we make funds from your deposited checks available to you sooner than we are able to collect the checks. This means that, from time to time, a deposited check may be returned unpaid after we made the funds available to you. Please keep in mind that even though we make funds from a deposited check available to you and you withdraw the funds, you are still responsible for problems with the deposit. If a check you deposited is returned to us unpaid for any reason, you will have to repay us and we may charge your account for the amount of the check, even if doing so overdraws your account.

Fidelity has a similar document:

Each check deposited is promptly credited to your account. However, the money may not be available until up to six business days later, and we may decline to honor any debit that is applied against the money before the deposited check has cleared.

If a deposited check does not clear, the deposit will be removed from your account, and you are responsible for returning any interest you received on it.

I would think that the longer holding period for Fidelity is due to the fact that they want to wait long enough to make sure that the number of times they have to undo investments due to the funds not clearing is nearly zero.

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