This particular example is from DBC. I see it a lot on low volume stocks and penny stocks. Is there a technical name for these kind of resistance lines / patterns? Is there any way to make sense of it and predict breakouts?
It's called a trading range, and by the looks of the chart it is very illiquid and even though you have not shown the price, it looks like a very tight trading range. I wouldn't trade something this illiquid at all.
Secondly you don't predict a breakout, a breakout is a trigger to take a trade when it happens, i.e. you wait for a breakout before taking a trade in the direction of the breakout.
It is neither a trading range nor a chart pattern. It happens when the stock is not liquid and there is a large gap between the bidding price and selling price. If someone wants to buy, he will have to buy at the selling bid and if someone wants to sell he will have to sell at the bidding price.
The same thing happens in every stock or commodity. but the difference it liquidity.