It is called "Credit card installments" or "Equal pay installments", and I am not aware of them being widely used in the USA. While in other countries they are supported by banks directly (right?), in US you may find this option only in some big stores like home improvement stores, car dealerships, cell phone operators (so that you can buy a new phone) etc. Some stores allow 0% financing for, say, 12 months which is not exactly the same as installments but close, if you have discipline to pay $250 each month and not wait for 12 months to end.
Splitting the big payment in parts means that the seller gets money in parts as well, and it adds risks of customer default, introduces debt collection possibility etc. That's why it's usually up to the merchants to support it - bank does not care in this case, from the bank point of view the store just charges the same card another $250 every month.
In other countries banks support this option directly, I think, taking over or dividing the risk with the merchants. This has not happened in US.
There is a company SplitIt which automates installments if stores want to support it but again, it means stores need to agree to it.
Here is a simple article describing how credit cards work: https://www.usbank.com/credit-cards/how-credit-cards-work.html
In general, if you move to US, you are unlikely to be able to get a regular credit card because you will not have any "credit history" which is a system designed to track each customer ability to get & pay off debt. The easiest way to build the history - request "secured credit card", which means you have to give the bank money up front and then they will give you a credit card with a credit limit equal to that amount. It's like a "practice credit card". You use it for 6-12 months and the bank will report your usage to credit bureaus, establishing your "credit score". After that you should be able to get your money back and convert your secured card into a regular credit card. Credit history can be also built by paying rent and utilities but that requires companies who collect money to report the payments to credit bureaus and very few do that. As anything else in US, there are some businesses which help to solve this problem for extra money.