Mortgages with a prepayment penalty usually do not charge points as a condition of issue. The points, usually in the range 1%-3% of the amount borrowed, are paid from the buyer's funds at the settlement, and are effectively the prepayment penalty. Once upon a time (e.g. 30 years ago), in some areas,
buyers had a choice of
- Paying points and having a mortgage with no prepayment penalty.
- Paying no points and having a mortgage with a prepayment penalty. The penalty usually decreased with time and disappeared after a few years (typically five to seven years).
- Paying no points and having no prepayment penalty.
This last option usually had a higher interest rate than the first two.
It was advantageous for a buyer to accept this option if the buyer was sure that the mortgage would indeed be paid off in a short time, e.g.
because a windfall of some kind (huge bonus, big inheritance, a killing in the stock market, a successful IPO) was anticipated, where the
higher interest charged for only a few years did not make much
of a difference. Taking this third option and hanging on to the
mortgage over the full 15 or 20 or 25 or 30 year term would have
been a very poor choice. I do not know if all three options are still available in the current mortgage market.
The IRS treats points for original morttgages and points for
re-financed mortgages differently for the purposes of Schedule A deductions. Points paid on an
original mortgage are deductible as mortgage interest in the year paid, whereas points paid on a refinance must be amortized over the life of
the loan so that the mortgage interest deduction is the sum of the
interest paid in the monthly payments plus a fraction of the points
paid for the refinance. The undeducted part of the points get deducted in the year that the mortgage
is paid off early (or refinanced again). Prepayment penalties are, of course,
deductible as mortgage interest in the year of the prepayment.