For online transactions, the 3-D Secure layer seems to be a pretty good idea. It's seasoned and well-tested (read: old) and a lot of credit card companies in Europe offer it. For example, a lot of German banks that give out credit cards for their bank account customers have Verified by Visa or MasterCard Secure Code turned on by default today (that's in 2016).
It works by sending the customer to their bank's/card's website where they have to enter some kind of verification information. That can be a password (or a selection of multiple secret information along the lines of mothers maiden name), SMS TAN, photo TAN, TAN list or two-factor authentication with a token generator. If the bank likes it, they approve and send the customer back to the merchant.
Not a lot of people would know what this is called, but they know that they need to do this SMS TAN thing when they pay for airplane tickets online with their credit card.
But what about the US? Is 3-D Secure widely available to US customers, and do they use it?
Would Average Joe be able to buy something online from, say, a Ukrainian airline website that enforces 3-D Secure or turns you down if your card does not support it?