The term for money owed to you by a company would be a credit balance. Consider, when an item is credited to your account, it's in your favor.
Whereas, money you owe to a company may be referred to simply as a balance, or balance owing, or less frequently a debit balance. A related term balance due would be the payment you owe in the current period, i.e. not representative of the entire amount owed.
I don't think the terms "positive balance" or "negative balance" are considered idiomatic in business. Rather, accounting terms like debit and credit have taken hold instead – and are often a source of confusion.
But I suggest that if you have a negative balance on a credit card, it's a credit balance in your favor. Unless they mix it up.