All the fees are added to the amount you actually spend, but they only occur when you do these kind of transactions. They do not happen for any other reason.
- Balance Transfer
If you transfer a balance from another credit card this fee is added to your balance. Since this is your first credit card you don't have to transfer any balance.
- Convenience Check Advance
This site says that this is a special type of check, linked to your credit card account, not to your checking account. If you write this type of check to a merchant the additional fees will apply.
- Cash Advance
If you use your credit card at an ATM this fee will be applied on top of the money you withdraw. Usually it is a percentage of the amount you withdraw.
- Cash Equivalent Fee
According to this site, a cash equivalent is something like casino chips which can be easily converted back into money without any loss.
- Foreign Fee.
If you use your credit card in a different currency, for example Euro but your credit cards currency is Dollar. Usually a percentage of the amount (~3-5%). If you withdraw money from a foreign currency ATM they add usually a fixed amount plus a percentage or any combination of this.