I paid SS tax for 40 quarters when I was a permanent resident of US. Now I live abroad. Will I be eligible for getting social security benefits?
Most likely the answer is no but why not ask? :-)
The answer is yes, actually. With string attached. There's a short FAQ on the SSA website that addresses this question. They emphasize citizens from other American countries, but they also discuss cases which are general.
Keep in mind that if you're covered by a totalization agreement, the results will be different.