I purchased a car for $19K; $6K was paid upfront, and the rest is financed over 3 years. Is there a way I can deduct the car purchase in certain circumstances? This vehicle is primarily used for work. I am in the U.S. and work as a consultant to a company.
IRS Publication 463 is a great resource to help you understand what you can and can't deduct.
It's not a yes/no question, it depends on the exact company use, other use, and contemporaneous record keeping.
You've got two options.
Deduct the business portion of the depreciation and actual expenses for operating the car.
Use the IRS standard mileage rate of $.575/mile in 2015. Multiply your business miles by the rate to calculate your deduction.
Assuming you're a sole proprietor you'll include a Schedule C to your return and claim the deduction on that form.