Please note that the following Graham Rating below corresponds to five years:
Earnings Stability (100% ⇒ 10 Years): 50.00%
Benjamin Graham - once known as The Dean of Wall Street - was a scholar and financial analyst who mentored legendary investors such as Warren Buffett, William J. Ruane, Irving Kahn and Walter J. Schloss.
Buffett describes Graham's book - The Intelligent Investor - as "by far the best book about investing ever written" (in its preface).
Graham's first recommended strategy - for casual investors - was to invest in Index stocks.
For more serious investors, Graham recommended three different categories of stocks - Defensive, Enterprising and NCAV - and 17 qualitative and quantitative rules for identifying them.
For advanced investors, Graham described various "special situations".
The first requires almost no analysis, and is easily accomplished today with a good S&P500 Index fund.
The last requires more than the average level of ability and experience. Such stocks are also not amenable to impartial algorithmic analysis, and require a case-specific approach.
But Defensive, Enterprising and NCAV stocks can be reliably detected by today's data-mining software, and offer a great avenue for accurate automated analysis and profitable investment.
For example, given below are the actual Graham ratings for International Business Machines Corp (IBM), with no adjustments other than those for inflation.
Defensive Graham investment requires that all ratings be 100% or more.
Enterprising Graham investment requires minimum ratings of - N/A, 75%, 90%, 50%, 5%, N/A and 137%.
International Business Machines Corp - Graham Ratings
Sales | Size (100% ⇒ $500 Million): 18,558.60%
Current Assets ÷ [2 x Current Liabilities]: 62.40%
Net Current Assets ÷ Long Term Debt: 28.00%
Earnings Stability (100% ⇒ 10 Years): 100.00%
Dividend Record (100% ⇒ 20 Years): 100.00%
Earnings Growth (100% ⇒ 30% Growth): 172.99%
Graham Number ÷ Previous Close: 35.81%
Not all stocks failing Graham's rules are necessarily bad investments. They may fall under "special situations". Graham's rules are also extremely selective. Graham designed and backtested his framework for over 50 years, to deliver the best possible long-term results. Even when stocks don't clear them, Graham's rules give a clear quantifiable measure of a stock's margin of safety.