Each of the three agencies not only use different techniques to calculate their scores, they also are not reporting to you the FICO credit score which is typically what is actually used by lenders. Equifax discusses this on their credit score page, while Experian claims to use FICO Score 8 which does match what some lenders use (but not all).
In your particular example, however, you're comparing reports pulled at different times. More than likely, there is a credit card balance that's different or something similar between the two; since your credit utilization is one of the biggest factors, that could be a significant amount of your credit score.
It's also possible that Mint is reporting a different score than Credit karma. One might be showing you your FICO score and the other the proprietary score from the credit reporting agency, or a different FICO score (there are different FICO algorithms, typically used for different purposes), or even VantageScore, which is yet another algorithm that has a higher maximum (goes up to 990); TransUnion talks about this some.
Edit: Indeed, Credit Karma is reporting your VantageScore; it is the 3.0 model, which does max at 850, but it could easily be different from what Mint uses (which I couldn't find quickly).
Mint uses the Equifax Model (look in the 1 footnote); it uses information from all three reports but uses the Equifax model to apply to those three reports to generate the score.