This seems like a huge advantage for a Roth to the point where I can't
figure out why anyone would choose a traditional.
You are missing something called the time value of money. This is the concept that a certain amount of money now has the same value as a bigger amount of money later. Basically, you wouldn't be willing to give up an amount of money now and get the same amount of money later -- you need to get a larger amount later to be willing to exchange it for a certain amount now. So that larger amount later has the same value to you than that smaller amount now. This is the idea behind interest and investment returns.
When you make an investment, and it earns interest or gains over a period of time, in effect that final amount of money (principal + interest) has the same value as the principal when you started, because that final amount was grown from the original principal.
So whether you are taxed on the principal in the beginning (as in Roth IRA) or on the principal + interest at the end (as in Traditional IRA), you are still taxed on the same value of money. And if the tax rates are the same between now and in the future, then you pay the same value in taxes in both cases. Roth would only be better than Traditional if the tax rates are lower now than when you take it out; and Traditional would only be better than Roth if the tax rates are higher now than when you take it out.
Let's consider a simple example to demonstrate that the two are equivalent if the tax rates (assuming a flat tax, because tax brackets introduce other complications) are the same now and when you take it out. In both cases, you start with $1000 pre-tax wages, you invest it for 10 years in a place with guaranteed 5% returns per year adn then take it out, there are no penalties for withdrawal, and there is a flat 25% tax now and in the future.
- Traditional IRA: You start with $1000 pre-tax and put it in the IRA. It grows for 10 years, to $1000 * 1.05^10 = $1628.89. You are taxed on 25% of it, leaving $1628.89 * 0.75 = $1221.67.
- Roth IRA: You start with $1000 pre-tax. You pay 25% income tax on it, leaving $750 which you put in the IRA. It grows for 10 years, to $750 * 1.05^10 = $1221.67. No taxes are paid when you withdraw it.
Note that you are left with the same amount of money in both cases. This arises from the associativity of multiplication.
Note that Roth IRA has a higher effective "limit" than Traditional IRA, because the nominal limit is the same for both, but Roth is post-tax. So if you contribute to near the limit, where Traditional can no longer match the value that Roth can contribute, then the comparison no longer applies. The $1000 in this example is below the limit for both.