If I worked for an American company at home from Canada (I'm a Canadian citizen), do I need to report income / pay taxes to the US, because the company is from the US? I'm specifically asking about an oDesk job, working at home for a US company. Does the answer differ depending on whether it is an hourly job or a fixed-rate job?
I think the answer is "it depends".
If taxes were withheld, you may need to file a return.
This might help: http://taxes.about.com/od/taxplanning/qt/form_W8BEN.htm