The personal loan is not reported to the IRS, and the mere fact of you receiving money does not inherently make it a taxable event.
The wire will not incure a Form 8300 to the IRS nor a Currency Transaction Report to the Treasury's FinCEN department (contrary to the accepted answer). Only in person cash to bank account (deposit), and bank account to cash (withdrawal) is reported via currency transaction reports.
http://www.occ.gov/news-issuances/bulletins/2003/OCC2003-48a.pdf (see definition on "transaction in currency") for convenience I have added the definition from page 3 here
"**Transaction in Currency**. The **physical** transfer of
currency from one person to another. This does not
include a transfer of funds by means of bank check, bank
draft, wire transfer or other written order that does not
involve the physical transfer of currency."
Your broker should have some accounting tools to help keep track of your capital gains and losses. There are different tax rules for the kinds of securities and products you plan to trade, so there is not a one size fits all rule here. Futures are taxed 60% long term capital gains and 40% short term capital gains no matter the length of the trade. Stocks come with wash sale and cost basis accounting rules, and other derivatives like straddles have their own subsections in the IRS tax code.
The bigger concern here would be the structure of the loan you are investing. Since people investing other people's money are required to be licensed by the federal and state securities regulators.