These do exist in the US; I've personally used them in the past through a Citi credit card.
Wikipedia has some info that seems to fit: Controlled payment number
A controlled payment number (a trademark of Orbiscom), also called
by generic names substitute credit card number, one-time use credit
card, disposable credit card and virtual credit card number) is an
alias for a credit card number. It is generated through the use of
either a Web application or a specialized client program, interacting
with the card issuer's computer, and is linked to the actual credit
Typically, a controlled payment number has a limit, and an expiration
date between two and twelve months from the issue date, both chosen by
the account owner, and while it can usually be set up to allow
multiple transactions, it can only be used with a single merchant.
This "alias" number is indistinguishable from an ordinary credit card
number, and the user's actual credit card number is never revealed to
the merchant. Consequently if it is compromised a fraudulent user can
usually not steal money, and the limit reduces how much a dishonest
merchant can steal.
The system was developed by Orbiscom, a Dublin-based payment
processing company which was acquired by Mastercard in January 2009
and in parallel by Cyota Inc. It is used by a number of credit card
issuers. In the USA, these include Bank of America (which inherited
its system, "ShopSafe," when it acquired MBNA), Citibank ("Virtual
Account Numbers"), Discover Card's Secure Online Account Numbers and
NetSpend's "virtual accounts". Examples from other countries are
MBnet, which can create a payment number linked to virtually any
credit or debit card emitted in Portugal.