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My wife and I got married in February. She has a Roth IRA, but she did not hit the contribution limits for 2023. I am considering making a late contribution to make sure we are taking full advantage of that opportunity, but our situation is a bit interesting and I want to make sure this is allowed:

  • We each are filing Single for 2023. Her 2023 MAGI is below the Roth IRA income limit for filing Single in 2023, but mine is above the limit.
  • We will be filing Married (Jointly) in 2024. Our combined MAGI will very likely be above the joint income limit for 2024.

So I guess my questions are:

  • Does it matter that her MAGI and filing status have effectively changed during the Jan-Apr late contribution window? Or is everything based off of her status as of 2023?
  • Since she did not have this money available to her in 2023, would this technically count as some sort of cash gift from me to her (effective in 2023, despite happening in 2024)?

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We each are filing Single for 2023. Her 2023 MAGI is below the Roth IRA income limit for filing Single in 2023, but mine is above the limit.

Your MAGI in 2023 is absolutely irrelevant. If you got married in February 2024, then you're not a part of her individual tax situation for 2023.

Does it matter that her MAGI and filing status have effectively changed during the Jan-Apr late contribution window? Or is everything based off of her status as of 2023?

No. The contribution deadline extends into 2024, but the qualifications are based on her situation in 2023.

She has until April 15th to make a contribution. Given that April 15th is the next business day after this post, she'll need to confirm with the custodian that a contribution instruction made that day will actually be posted on that date, otherwise she might already be too late.

Since she did not have this money available to her in 2023, would this technically count as some sort of cash gift from me to her (effective in 2023, despite happening in 2024)?

Nothing is "effective". The contribution deadline for IRA contributions is the tax return due date for the year (excluding extensions), i.e.: April 15th. But the contribution, and effectively your gift, are in fact happening in 2024. So for tax purposes the IRA contribution is included in the 2023 tax year, but for any other purpose it happens when it actually happened.

I'm assuming you're asking because you're worried about gift tax implications, but since you're already married it is no longer a concern.

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