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I mailed Form 4868 Extension of Time To File U.S. Individual Income Tax Return. How does one get a proof whether the extension was granted? Does IRS send any letter?

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No. Every mailing to the IRS should be done via certified mail, which gives you proof of mailing. Alternatively you can file this specific form online. The extension is automatic, you don't need it to be granted.

You can show the proof of payment which was attached to the form, if asked.

You don't actually need that proof though. If you owed no taxes then it doesn't really matter if you submit the return late, you'll be giving the government a loan of your refund essentially. If you did end up owing, but didn't attach estimated payment to the extension form - you'll still owe late fees on that amount. In essence this form is just a formality.

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  • If you're overpaid the extension doesn't matter -- you can file anytime up to 3 years without cost other than the opportunity cost -- but if you're underpaid and don't file 4868 you owe the 6651(a)(1) penalty of 5% per month up to 25% whereas if you get the extension (and do file by the extended date) you owe the smaller (a)(2) penalty of 0.5% per month (also in principle up to 25%, but it takes 4 years to hit the limit). You also owe interest in either case, now 7% per year. Commented Mar 10, 2023 at 5:48

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