I am currently in the US on an F1 visa and I have over 4000$ credit card debt (4 maxed out credit cards). I make on time payments each month and should pay it all within a year. Can I leave the US and go to my home country for a couple of weeks? Will I be asked by the CBP officers about my credit usage on my way back?
In all likelihood, you will not even see a USCBP officer on your way out, since the US does not conduct exit checks. Even if you did, the chance that they would happen to ask you about outstanding credit card debt is almost zero, and the chance that they would care even less. Of course, you will still owe that money after you leave, and you can expect the credit card companies to pursue you to your home country if you try to get out of those debts.
Coming back to the US after, there could be a concern if you are trying to use the same credit cards to prove that you can afford to be financially solvent during your stay here. This is because if your credit cards are maxed out, you don't actually have any credit with them. If you have other means to support yourself in the US, like bank funds &c, I would show these statements to USCBP if they ask about financial means, and not mention the credit cards unless specifically asked.