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I am a non-US + non-European citizen who is doing a postdoc in the US (under the J1 visa), in parallel, I have a full-time job (remote) in Germany. What will happen to my tax, shall I pay any extra taxes rather than what is being deducted from my payrolls?

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    When you write fulltime remote job in Germany I assume you mean you have a work contract under German law. First, having two fulltime jobs in general is illegal in Germany. Second, being a fully remote employee outside of Germany is definitely possible but legally very complicated. Put together this makes it look highly likely to me that your German employment does not comply with German law. Be careful.
    – quarague
    Aug 8, 2023 at 13:37

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In the US, while you may not have to pay any extra taxes, unfortunately you will have to file a tax return. It is not automatic.

Start with the assumption that you are filing as a US resident (typical for J1 status). Use tax software to work through the questions about foreign income. Even if you have to declare the German income in the US, you won't necessarily be double-taxed, because the US and Germany have a tax treaty.

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You will have to pay taxes according to the rules of each country. Both USA and Germany want you to pay taxes for any money made while in their country. (For US citizens the situation in the USA is more tricky). So Germany wants nothing, since you didn't work in Germany, but in the USA you have to declare your income, including what you were paid in Germany, and pay taxes on all of it.

I hope your own home country (where you don’t live) doesn’t want a piece of the tax cake as well, because that makes things more complicated.

If your German employer takes money and sends it to the German tax office, that would be a mistake on their side, and you’d have to fill out a tax return in Germany to get your money back. So your tax return would be like: Taxes paid in Germany = €10,000, income in Germany = 0, tax owed in Germany = 0, refund = €10,000.

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