My personal experience has been very low in encountering 3D secure when making online purchases. I can't say that I've seen any sort of increase over the last 10 years. I think the same concept from the linked 2016 question of "consumers don't want to be annoyed" continues to persist.
According to statistics on ravelin.com, the national average 3D Secure acceptance rate for the US is 58%. The acceptance rate is not indicative of how many vendors use the service, but how many transactions that go through the service are accepted (successful). With a rate that low, it's not surprising that vendors are resistant to higher deployment rates. Any inconvenience in an online shopping process directly relates to lower conversion rates.
Elsewhere on their site, Ravelin gives credence to that concern based on India's experience. (They reference a TechCrunch article for this info)
when India implemented mandatory 3D Secure in 2014, some businesses reported a 25% drop in sales overnight due to the extra step in payments.
I'm not finding statistics to directly answer your question about how prevalent implementation of 3D Secure is in the US, but it seems safe to say that there has been low to no significant progress since 2016. The Revised Payment Services Directive (PSD2), which is the set of laws surrounding payment services in the EU and EEA (European Economic Area), does not apply to transactions if either (or both) the card issuer and acquirer are not located within the EEA. There is little motivation to make those improvements in the US without enforced regulations.
I will note that purchases at physical stores has had significant progress in moving towards EMV (chip instead of swipe). The US hasn't had large-scale adoption of chip and PIN for the same reason mentioned above. Consumers just aren't willing to deal with it yet.