Stock tickers exist on most stock exchanges and are unique to an exchange or country.
Is there any stock exchange that doesn't use ticker symbols (a.k.a. stock symbols)?
I don't think there are any such exchanges.
However, exchanges mostly trade common stock and ETFs (see this excellent overview: https://stockmarketmba.com/abouttheusstockmarket.php).
Whereas ISIN identifies any kind of security, eg bonds, debt instruments, secondary instruments, etc. So there are many ISIN that are not associated with a ticker.
AFAIK there are over 80M ISIN in the world, but only about 75k publicly traded companies. Which makes maybe 100-150k tickers because many common shares are traded on multiple exchanges. See eg this answer https://money.stackexchange.com/a/156606/122732, or one of these pages and try the drop-down next to the ticker name: