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Early this year, I made $5,000 in prior-year contributions to a Roth IRA. (I didn't make any IRA contributions last year.)

Some time later, I withdrew $3,000 from the IRA, intending to take advantage of the provision described in the following paragraph of IRS Publication 590-B:

Withdrawals of contributions by due date. If you withdraw contributions (including any net earnings on the contributions) by the due date of your return for the year in which you made the contribution, the contributions are treated as if you never made them. If you have an extension of time to file your return, you can withdraw the contributions and earnings by the extended due date. The withdrawal of contributions is tax free, but you must include the earnings on the contributions in income for the year in which you made the contributions.

I figured that by the above, $3,000 of my contributions would be "treated as if you never made them", meaning I would be able to contribute another $4,000 in order to reach the $6,000 contribution limit.

However, after I contributed another $1,000, the IRA custodian (TD Ameritrade) informed me that I have reached the contribution limit and I can no longer make regular contributions for the year 2019. (They did say I could put the money back in as a 60-day rollover, but I don't think I want to do that.)

Am I, in fact, permitted to make another $3,000 in regular contributions for the year 2019, or is it time for me to move on to the next option?

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If you request a return of contribution, they'll return the requested contribution amount along with any earnings associated with that amount. This basically is a reversal of the contribution and allows you to re-contribute for same year to get back to max contribution.

If you just request a normal distribution they will just distribute that amount and not the earnings associated and you will not be able to contribute more. Since they are claiming you can't contribute more this is probably what happened, but it's worth following up with them to see if they can walk it back and re-process as you intended.

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