I am not familiar with the details of Indian taxation but let me explain how their normally works.
It is normal that in a year when you move between countries you file a tax return in both. You should first determine where you are resident for tax purposes in the year in question. Each country has its own rules and you may be resident in one or the other or both (or neither if you are really lucky).
You indicate that you are resident in the US but not India for tax purposes. This means you have to file taxes in the US, and non-resident earning 250,000 rupees in India also have to file. So you must file in both countries.
You need to declare your entire income on both tax returns. There may be a difference in how you declare foreign income compared with domestic. Your US income probably still counts as foreign, even for the time you were in India while earning it, but check the rules carefully.
There is an agreement which means that you will probably not be taxed twice on the same income, but both countries want to know about it.
It may be worth your while to get a professional to do your tax returns this year.