Cash back bonuses are viewed the same way as old-school rebates, it's seen as a savings on a purchase you've made (versus actual income) and thus isn't taxed. Similar also to how a discount received as a sale isn't taxed. One way to think of it is, you've already been taxed on your paycheck, which you used to make a purchase. It doesn't make sense to tax the 1% you get as a discount on the purchase because the income you used to make the purchase has already been taxed. You can't get your hands on that 1% cashback without already having been taxed on income.
Interest on investments, on the other hand, is new, fresh income and taxed as such. Canceled debt is essentially income (the creditor is literally paying your debt for you) and, again, is treated as such.
Of course, this all needs to be taken in the context that tax rules are often somewhat arbitrary and not always done in a way that lets you point to a consistent over-arching rule or decision process.