I believe your question is "whoa, that standard deductible is sooo high, I can't even reach it with half a year's mortgage interest payments, and those web sites say we used to be able to get an even higher deductible by itemizing, previous to the passage of the 2018 Jobs act. We used to get more by itemizing, did something terrible happen to 'screw' everybody? We can't itemize anymore?"
The answer is that yeah, those who have property taxes greater than 10K can only deduct 10K (SALT taxes). And nobody can deduct for number of children anymore. But you can still deduct mortgage interest, charitable donations, 10K SALT, etc
So I guess you could say it was an effort to simplify tax code, now "it's harder to take deductions, because there are fewer, and the standard deduction is pretty high, so...not worth it to itemize anymore." (for many)
So basically those that used to take "a lot of deductions" (due to kids and/or SALT) have to take the "somewhat high" standard deduction now (which will be less than what they used to itemize, by a bit, bummer). I wouldn't exactly call that "screwed" though it might be less deduction (unless they were paying a ton of SALT taxes, yeah they'll pay more). Some people will lose, some people will gain (by taking the new standard deductible), but for sure a lot more people will take it.
Those that used to itemize due to claiming "lots of dependents" get an increased earned income tax credit so I'd imagine that offsets the loss. It seems that it did in my particular case, maybe a small loss. Those that make like 500K and can't qualify for the EITC they'll lose more.
So to your question of were taxpayers at large "screwed" it doesn't seem so. Some were. Some get a tax break.
If you were in the camp where what you "used" to itemize is less than what the new standard deduction is, enjoy your gain!
In terms of "did it hurt you somehow" it kind of depends on how much your property tax will be (and mortgage interest payments, which are still deductible). My hunch is you'll find it's close to a wash.
To be clear, many people still itemize. People that had lots of "charitable" deductions still itemize, possibly close to a wash, possibly small loss there (since they can't also deduct children and SALT to make it add up to a nice big amount).
So it seems overall it mostly hurts those that pay lots of SALT taxes. Though they still get the standard deductible if that helps. And if they have other deductions like mortgage interest and charitable, they can still itemize. Just not as much. Plus the deductions for dependents are still "made up" to them in the increase EITC. So see where you fall in that spectrum.
If you happen to have a "nicer" house (i.e. high value) in a state that has high property tax values, well...yeah you're paying higher taxes now. So if that's your case, then your taxes have increased. For "some" people (ex: a poor person who used to not itemize, or a person in a place where either property tax is low or property value is low) they may have gone down, or stayed the same, depends on the exact situation.