A credit is an accounting entry that either increases a liability or equity account, or decreases an asset or expense account. It is positioned to the right in an accounting entry.
For consumers -- and businessmen who aren't accountants -- the bolded part "credit ... increases a liability" is what matters.
Loans are the typical manner that you obtain credit.
For example, when you buy something using a credit card, the bank has loaned you some money. Thus, your assets have increased -- you just bought some peanut butter -- and your liabilities have also increased, since now you owe the bank $3.
That's revolving credit, since you keep taking out loans and repaying earlier loans using the same loan agreement. It can go on for decades.
Then there are fixed term loans, like when you buy a car, home, or even a refrigerator "90 days same as cash".
Colloquially, though, you're right that "credit" is high rate short term loans, and "loans" are longer term, lower rate debt.
Except... that payday loans and auto title loans are short term with high rates.
Hopefully this is clearer than mud...