The only one I can think of is Social Security, and it looks like deportation specifically disallows SS benefits:
"Section 202(n)(1) or section 223 of the Act prohibits the number holder (NH) on a Social Security record from receiving his or her title II retirement and/or disability benefits when SSA receives notice from DHS that the NH has been deported or removed from the United States under any of the sections of the INA that are listed in the definitions in RS 02635.001C." https://secure.ssa.gov/apps10/poms.nsf/lnx/0302635001
It looks like if you could somehow swing permanent residence again, you might be able to get benefits reinstated, but it's probably a bit too much work to do that just to get access to benefits. Also, if you have dependents, they might be able to get SS, even if you can't.