You can only go to jail for doing something illegal, and then it typically has to be not your first offense, and you have to be unwilling to cooperate with authorities to catch "the bigger fish". Failing for a scam is not a crime. I would put your chances of going to jail, at zero, with the information you provided.
It is a bit unclear, from your post, who was harmed. What information did you give away, the credit card details? If so that card should be canceled right away. I would work with the credit card's fraud department and ask them for advice on what can be done. You may want to close this account all together and either get a credit card with a different company.
There are some really positive take away's from your question. First you realized that this was a scam pretty early. Second you are trying to make things right. Here is a story of an older man that should know better that lost his life saving to a similar scam. You didn't do that!
So build on this. Go forth and do great things. Know that the fastest way to become wealthy is to do so slowly. Get out of debt, invest, and do things to increase your income.