I think at the core of this question is a misunderstanding of debt. There's debt, and then there's debt. And that's not to say there is good debt and bad debt, as some people refer to mortgages as "good debt" and credit cards as "bad debt" but just that not all debts are the same. For example, not all mortgages are good so not all mortgages can be good debt as a category.
You should not, ever, use your your credit card that is already carrying a balance to pay for a fancy $250 dinner. The dinner isn't going up in value, it will literally end up in a toilet. The interest rate on credit cards is very high and you're already carrying a balance from other things you probably should have simply abstained from. It doesn't matter that the dinner will only cost $4 per month for the next 100 months. I think you are thinking of all debt this way. All debt is paying for something you don't need with money you don't have. But that's not what debt is. Debt is a tool.
Change the dinner to a $900 computer for your freelance work. You do freelance editing and earn $500 per month approximately, the primary tool for your trade was just stolen and you had no insurance. Sure, the computer is probably still going down in value like the dinner but you need it in order to earn the $500 each month. With debt you can replace the computer and keep earning that $500 in exchange for part of your future earnings. Yes, the money you used to pay for the computer comes at a cost as the loan requires a payment of $100 per month for 10 months so the bloodsucking good-for-nothing bank will earn $100 in interest, but that cost allowed you to keep working.
Lets call your freelance editing gig Lancelot Editors. Lancelot Editors earns $400 of net income each month, because your computer will cost the company $100 per month for the next 10 months. Lets assume there are no other expenses apart from the $75 reserved to pay taxes, though the lender may require you to carry insurance on this computer as protection and maybe you think it's a good idea anyway given your current predicament. The company has $325 of net earnings each month which go to you, the owner of Lancelot Editors. That's a dividend.
You use this $325 to live your life, you eat lunch pay rent, etc.
Why doesn't the company just retain the $325 to pay the computer faster? Because then you don't eat.
The major financing tool apart from debt is an equity sale. As an alternative to taking that $1,000 loan you could have just sold 5% of your business to Cruella de Vil for the $900 cost of the new computer. But now, every month when you distribute your $425 (because there is no longer a $100 loan payment) of earnings, Cruella gets $21.25 because she owns 5% of the company. And she will continue to own 5% of the company until she feels like selling it. Sure, $21.15 is less than the $100 loan payment in monthly terms but it goes on indefinitely while the loan will be paid back eventually.
In reality, corporate finance and capital planning is very complicated. But understand that in the case of the computer, you personally put up $0. Your $0 investment earned you $4,000 over the 10 months that followed (because the computer cost $1,000 of the $5,000 you earned), you never had to skip a lunch and all you had to do was agree to repay the money.
Just because the word is the same this kind of debt is not the same debt as buying consumer future-trash on a credit card and there are very legitimate reasons to pledge some earnings in the future in order to protect dividend payments right now.