When a company shutters with excess assets after paying debts, the shareholders get to decide what they wish to do with those excess assets.
If there are many shareholders (or even just one shareholder who insists on getting an exact fair share), the excess assets would likely be sold to the highest bidder or written off. If you really want the antique paintings (or whatever), you can probably make a reasonable offer at that point. Assets nobody wants that have been written off are likely to be thrown away or donated. The money from the closing-down sale is then split among the shareholders.
If the shareholders enjoy a more collegiate relationship, "you get the computers, I get the furniture and Bob wants all the plants" can work.
You also ask
As an owner of the company, would I be able to keep the devices as my own property? What could happen to me if I kept them for myself?
I am not a lawyer and none of this answer counts as financial advice, but I'd guess that if the other shareholders are fine with you keeping the devices, you still have a capital-gains tax issue. It might help to fix a price on the second-hand goods so that you have a definite and reasonable number to work with when the tax man comes knocking.
As for what could happen to you if you kept them for yourself, i.e. without the consent of the other shareholders, the consequences probably start with not getting invited to reunions and the possibilities deteriorate rapidly from there. It's not fair to the other shareholders, so it's not advisable to do it. Try to come to an agreement that all shareholders are willing parties to. After all, ending the venture with money in the bank is so much better than ending the venture with debts owing. It would be unfortunate to lose your integrity by underhanded dealings after all that.