A company issues a convertible bond to an investor. It has a par value of $10,000 and can be converted into 5 shares.
The company currently has 50 outstanding shares, so the bond corresponds to ~9% (5/55) equity, should it be converted right away.
Say now that the majority shareholders later choose to issue 1,000 new shares among themselves. The bond has now been diluted and will only yield ~0.5% equity upon conversion.
What is to prevent this from happening? Are convertible bond holders treated as minority shareholders even before they convert to equity? Do they have preemption rights?