You are not really "responsible".
You brought a fake check to the bank. A fake check is a piece of paper that looks like a valuable check, but is worth nothing.
So you gave the bank a piece of paper that is worth nothing. That worthless piece of paper convinced the bank to put money into your account temporarily, but weeks later when the bank figures it out, they take the money away.
You haven't been harmed by the bank in any way. You gave them a worthless piece of paper, and they put money into your account, but only temporarily. No harm done.
You are not in a worse position than if the bank had immediately detected that the check is worthless. And it would seem strange if you want to the bank with a fake check, they found it was fake, and you wanted the bank to be responsible.