Given your clarifying comment that you're asking about the length of stay rather than AirBnB in particular, I'd say there is a decent chance there will be tax differences. The difference is unlikely to be in income tax, but many cities have local ordinances that impose transaction taxes on short stays. For instance, the town where I live has a "transient occupancy tax" for any paid stay of less than 31 days.
Unfortunately, because these taxes are often levied by individual cities, it's hard to know whether one applies in your case. One town may impose no tax while the town right next to it does impose a tax. You'll have to look at what your local laws are. This could be easy if your town has a nice comprehensive website about local laws; if not you may have to do some deeper research.
In any case, you should definitely look into it, since there could be penalities if there is a tax and the city finds out you're not paying it. As AirBnB has grown in popularity, many municipalities have begun to crack down on AirBnB renters who try to make money without paying taxes like a regular motel (as well as conforming to other laws, e.g., running a business in a neighborhood zoned residential).