Regarding property taxes: Pick a house you like in a neighborhood you like then, go to the city/county website and look up the tax assessment (what the house is worth), and the tax rate for residential real estate. Assessments are public record.
HOA dues could be anything from nothing to hundreds of dollars a month. It depends on what amenities the neighborhood has. The type of neighborhood will also influence the rate. A condo/townhouse community has lots of roads, and land owned and buildings owned by the HOA. All that infrastructure needs to be maintained, plowed, cut; plus money needs to be reserved to replace all that stuff in the future. It may be possible to get that info for the neighborhoods you are interested. When you are looking at listing this information should be included. When you are ready to make an offer, you will be provided copies of the documents and the budget.
Property Insurance. Ask your agent for an estimate for some houses you like. The process is automated on their end.
Your principal and interest amounts are determined by your loan approval.
The old rule before the last housing bubble was that PITI ( principal, interest, taxes, and Insurance) was to be no greater than 28% of your income. This was considered a safe level. That did assume that you itemized. It also assumed that your other debts (car loan, school loan, credit card debts) could be held to less than 10%.
Note that you don't have to get the maximum loan amount. Some flexibility is good.