What you are describing is a Chart of Accounts. It's a structure used by accountants to categorise accounts into sub-categories below the standard Asset/Liability/Income/Expense structure.
The actual categories used will vary widely between different people and different companies. Every person and company is different, whilst you may be happy to have a single expense account called "Lunch", I may want lots of expense accounts to distinguish between all the different restaurants I eat at regularly. Companies will often change their chart of accounts over time as they decide they want to capture more (or less) detail on where a particular type of Expense is really being spent.
All of this makes any attempt to create a standard (in the strict sense) rather futile. I have worked at a few places where discussions about how to structure the chart of accounts and what referencing scheme to use can be surprisingly heated! You'll have to come up with your own system, but I can provide a few common recommendations:
- Make the account numbers memorable, people will be referring to them by number in no time
- Reflect hierarchy in the numbering system, e.g. start all of your Asset accounts with an "A"
- Leave plenty of gaps between account numbers so there's room for expansion
If you're looking for some simple examples to get started with, most personal finance software (e.g. GnuCash) will offer to create an example chart of accounts when you first start a session.